There are three social classes, the third of which are the slaves. Hammurabi ruled from 1792 to 1750 BC (according to the middle chronology). Milestone Documents in World History. Discussion Questions. "[8] The laws were arranged in 44 columns and 28 paragraphs; some follow along the rules of "an eye for an eye". It is one of the oldest recorded codes of laws in the world. The Code of Hammurabi was one of the only sets of laws in the ancient Near East and also one of the first forms of law. widows, orphans and children) in the society. If any one ensnare another, putting a ban upon him, but he can not prove it, then he that ensnared him shall be put to death. It set fines and punishments for justice and standardized commercial interactions. Thus the code established the innocent-until-proven-guilty principle (presumption of innocence). It has been stated that he was a very just ruler. The laws were strict and absolute. Hammurabi was famous not only for his military conquests but also for establishing the sets of judgment, a symbol of civilisation in Mesopotamia. Hammurabi was a Babylonian king who ruled from 1792 to 1750 B.C. The code made sure that everyone received justice, offering protection to the most vulnerable people (i.e. World History Edu © 2020. It greatly influenced a total dependence on the power of their one ruler, and it was a conscious effort to exalt the king as the source, the only source, of It consists of his legal decisions that were collected toward the end of his reign and inscribed on a diorite stela set up in Babylon’s temple of Marduk , the national god of Babylonia . 8. v. 94, pp. The stele of Hammurabi reveals that the death sentence was the most likely outcome if a person engaged in any one of about 28 crimes. If a person is proven to have stolen an ox, then he/she is slapped with a punishment of 30 times the value of the stolen ox. And it is likely that the diversity is what drove Hammurabi to come up with his codes of law. #195: If a son strike his father, they shall cut off his fingers. I will share what I learn after studying more. The Code of Hammurabi (also known as the Codex Hammurabi and Hammurabi's Code), created ca. He received the title “Hammurabi-ili”, which translates into “Hammurabi is my god”. 272–289. Law #195. [3] A few provisions address issues related to military service. Some of those punishments included scotching of the culprit’s tongue. The purpose of the Legal Code of Hammurabi was to use political power to create common bonds among the diverse people of the society. He did what no other previous Babylonian king had done before. The laws of Hammurabi, inscribed on a famous stele discovered in 1901, cover all aspects of Babylonian life. Home; Home. Hammurabi’s code, a fine example of the “an eye for an eye” mentality of justice, was established in order to please the gods he worshipped. The Hammurabi Code encapsulates 282 legal codes that were used to basically govern the people of ancient Babylon during King Hammurabi’s reign. Updated April 21, 2020. If a son strikes his father, his hands shall be hewn off. [22], Punishments for someone assaulting someone from a lower class were far lighter than if they had assaulted someone of equal or higher status. Code of Hammurabi stele. Per the estimate given by scholars, Hammurabi most likely became king at the age of 18, succeeding his father, Sin-Muballit. The king put together a written set of legal code that contained 282 rules. In some cases, the guilty person could have his/her hands amputated for theft crimes. [25][26], In July 2010, archaeologists reported that a fragmentary Akkadian cuneiform tablet was discovered at Tel Hazor, Israel, containing a c. 1700 BC text that was said to be partly parallel to portions of the Hammurabi code. Flach, Jacques. A third of the code addresses issues concerning household and family relationships such as inheritance, divorce, paternity, and reproductive behavior. King, Hammurabi's Code of Laws, Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, Theological University of the Reformed Churches, University Museum at the University of Pennsylvania, Law Code Stele of King Hammurabi, 1792–1750 BC, "The Code of Hammurabi: Translated by L.W. Hammurabi’s Code had its set of punishments (mostly harsh punishments) to ward of potential breakers of the law. How do we know about the Code of Hammurabi? Ancient scribes were responsible for. It greatly influenced a total dependence on the power of their one ruler, and it was a conscious effort to exalt the king as the source of earthly powers. Interesting Facts about the Code of Hammurabi. As a matter of fact, it was around the Elamite capital of Susa that French archaeologist and mining engineer Jean-Jacques de Morgan (1857-1924) discovered the only surviving slab of Hammurabi. Long after the passing of Hammurabi, the codes played an important role in influencing countless city-states and kingdoms. This prevented people from acting arbitrary. These rules were then carved onto a large stone pillar for everyone to see. A very important point worth noting about the Hammurabi Code is the “lex talionis” doctrine (the “Law of Retaliation”). Vol. ", What is a Constitution? Hammurabi’s Codes were a comprehensive set of 282 legal codes introduced by an 18th century BCE Babylonian king Hammurabi (reign – 1792 to 1750 BCE) in order to regulate trade, business transactions, as well as other social relationships in the ancient city-state of Babylon. William David Thomas, Gareth Stevens (2008) p. 8. Hammurabi’s Code Primary Source Analysis teaches students about the culture of Babylon and it’s law code justice system through primary source document analysis. It consists of 282 laws, most concerning punishment. It consists of 282 laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth" (lex talionis)[1] as graded based on social stratification depending on social status and gender, of slave versus free, man versus woman.[2]. The codes encompassed issues from a wide range of areas in the society, from family, business, and administrative law. The temples and obelisks that he built during his reign were considered very impressive for their time. recording sales and trades ... according to Hammurabi what was the purpose of writing the code. Question: What was the purpose of Hammurabis code? Hammurabi’s Code is among the oldest translatable writings. "Hammurabi is a ruler, who is as a father to his subjects, who holds the words of Mardukin reverence, who has achieved conquest for Mardukover the north and south, who rejoices the heart of Marduk, his lord, who has bestowed benefits for ever and ever on his subjects, and has established order in the land." The Code of Hammurabi was remarkable becauseit was the first time a leader thought to write down the code so subjects would be aware of what the laws were that they were expected to obey. TutorsOnSpot.com. Hammurabi, the ruler of Babylon, is best known for the development of a code of laws known as the Code of Hammurabi, which was used to regulate Mesopotamian society. Enforcement of the codes was done in a fair and just manner. He then forced the Assyrians to pay yearly tributes to the city of Babylon. Required fields are marked *. The Code of Hammurabi was written down on clay tablets and etched into stone. Owing to its chemical properties, diorite does not easily lend itself to carving. (Law #104). Hammurabi’s Laws in so many ways curbed the excesses of the wronged person in terms of retribution. what Hammurabi's Code, how many laws did it contain, why is this code special? [9], It was taken as plunder by the Elamite king Shutruk-Nahhunte in the 12th century BC and was taken to Susa in Elam (located in the present-day Khuzestan Province of Iran), where it was no longer available to the Babylonian people. The codes were written (chiseled) into the slab using cuneiform writing, one of the earliest forms of writings in human history. Owing to his impressive feats of accomplishments, Hammurabi was in seen as a god in some circles. They were a multicultural group of people. However, the freedman paid 5 shekels. The Hazor law code fragments are currently being prepared for publication by a team from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Some gaps in the list of benefits bestowed on cities recently annexed by Hammurabi may imply that it is older than the famous stele (currently dated to the early 18th century BC). Code of Hammurabi-Inscribed on a seven-foot stele (stone slab or pillar), enshrined in the temple of Marduk (national god of the Babylonians)-The Code is now considered a summary of a body of long-standing Sumerian laws-Laws about prices, wages, payment of … "Hammurabi is a ruler, who is as a father to his subjects, who holds the words of Mardukin reverence, who has achieved conquest for Mardukover the north and south, who rejoices the heart of Marduk, his lord, who has bestowed benefits for ever and ever on his subjects, and has established order in the land." Owing to the … The common belief is that the code contained 282 laws in total. These codes originate from similar cultures i… did the law code apply equally to all. He expanded Babylon and united the southern Mesopotamia. Translated by L.W. Once the text was brought to life, the Hammurabi became synonymous with legal codes. "Code of Hammurabi." Capital crimes, meanwhile, were often met with their own unique and grisly death penalties. This short activity focuses on the treatment of women, the value of property, punishment today and the “eye for an eye” form of justice. Many laws are about slaves and many are about slave owners. The code … Our current generation came to know of the Hammurabi’s Codes from the carvings on top a large black pillar, which was discovered in the early 1900s. Barton, a scientist of Semitic languages at the University of Pennsylvania from 1922 to 1931, stated that while there are similarities between the Mosaic Law and the Code of Hammurabi, a study of the entirety of both laws "convinces the student that the laws of the Old Testament are in no essential way dependent upon the Babylonian laws." [30][31], CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Iconographic Evidence for Some Mesopotamian Cult Statues, Dominique Collon, Die Welt der Götterbilder, Edited by Groneberg, Brigitte; Spieckermann, Hermann;, and Weiershäuser, Frauke, Berlin, New York (Walter de Gruyter) 2007, pp. I will have much more reading to do. Hammurabi's code of laws consists of 282 rules. 1780 BC (short chronology), is one of the earliest extant sets of laws and one of the best preserved examples of this type of document from ancient Mesopotamia.Still earlier collections of laws include the codex of Ur-Nammu, king of Ur (ca. 2050 BC), the Codex of Eshnunna (ca. He used death as a penalty and therefore helped to restore peace in his kingdom. For example, a member from the upper class was required to pay 10 shekels (the silver coin used in ancient Babylon) to a doctor for the healing of a bad wound. The United States Constitution is about 25% the same as the Code of Hammurabi. Dallas, TX: Schlager Group, 2010. had such lenient punishments. The Prologue of the Code of Hammurabi (the first 305 inscribed squares on the stele) is on such a tablet, also at the Louvre (Inv #AO 10237). At the head of the stone slab is Hammurabi receiving the law from Shamash,[7] and in the preface, he states, "Anu and Bel called by name me, Hammurabi, the exalted prince, who feared God, to bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil-doers; so that the strong should not harm the weak; so that I should rule over the black-headed people like Shamash, and enlighten the land, to further the well-being of mankind. Worldhistoryedu is not responsible for the content of external sites. The Code issues justice following the three classes of Babylonian society: property owners, freed men, and slaves. A partial copy exists on a 2.25-metre-tall (7.4 ft) stone stele. In the U.S. Capitol, a marvelous marble bas-relief of Hammurabi can be found. In cases of bearing false witness, the guilty person’s eye or ear is removed. The Code of Hammurabi was mostly based off an earlier set of Sumerian laws. Today, the ancient city of Babylon is all submerged below a massive groundwater, leaving very little in terms of ruins. Eye for an Eye. At the south wall of the U.S. Supreme Court lies an amazing marble work of art with Hammurabi expertly carved into it. Fant, Clyde E. and Mitchell G. Reddish (2008). Guarantees. [24] Likewise, the Museum of the Ancient Orient, part of the Istanbul Archaeology Museums, also has a "Code of Hammurabi" clay tablet, dated to 1790 BC (in Room 5, Inv # Ni 2358). Examples of such laws were the Code of Ur-Nammu and the Code of Lipit-Ishtar, which came from the Sumerians. These rules were then carved onto a large stone pillar for everyone to see. It also contains some important ideas like having people provide evidence of a crime, innocent until proven guilty, and protection for the weak. [18][19] The code is also one of the earliest examples of the idea of presumption of innocence, and it also suggests that both the accused and accuser have the opportunity to provide evidence. LAW #14. Hammurabi and his empire worshiped a host of deities, including Marduk, ancient Babylon’s patron god. These laws established stability and kept the society flourishing. One of the best known laws from Hammurabi's code was: Ex. [14] Earlier collections of laws include the Code of Ur-Nammu, king of Ur (c.  2050 BC), the Laws of Eshnunna (c. 1930 BC) and the codex of Lipit-Ishtar of Isin (c. 1870 BC), while later ones include the Hittite laws, the Assyrian laws, and Mosaic Law. This in turn kept many societies very stable and less likely to have many criminal activities. The code was discovered by modern archaeologists in 1901, and its editio princeps translation published in 1902 by Jean-Vincent Scheil. Majority of the loot were sent to Susa. It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world. no- punishment was based on class. Hammurabi’s Code is one of the most famous examples of the ancient precept of “lex talionis,” or law of retribution, a form of retaliatory justice commonly associated with the saying “an eye for an eye.” Under this system, if a man broke the bone of one his equals, his own bone would be broken in return. Hammurabi's code was the first written legal code and was issued by the king Hammurabi. He united the various smaller city-states across Mesopotamia under his rule. The Codes of Hammurabi . Hammurabi also built large walls to fortify his city-state, keeping away rogue nomads and invaders. Although he is most known for the Hammurabi Code, Hammurabi was a very prolific conqueror. The purpose of the Code of Hammurabi was to use political power to create common bonds among the diverse people of the society. The material was imported into Sumeria from Magan - today the area covered by the United Arab Emirates and Oman.[6]. Hammurabi’s law of retribution was perhaps one of the reasons the city of Babylon flourished for quite some time. Meaning of the Hammurabi Code. The Code of Hammurabi was a comprehensive set of laws, considered by many scholars to be the oldest laws established; they were handed down four thousand years ago by King Hammurabi of Babylon. was considered unfair, causing people to rebel in the world's first insurrection. The code itself tells archeologists a lot about the lives of the people of Babylon. However, when Cyrus the Great brought both Babylon and Susa under the rule of his Persian Empire and placed copies of the document in the Library of Sippar, the text became available for all the peoples of the vast Persian Empire to view. The material of the slab is an intrusive igneous rock called diorite. 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